Malaria Site: All About Malaria

Malaria has been haunting mankind since evolution. It has killed more people than all the wars, has greatly influenced our history and geography and has changed many of our genes. According to the World Malaria Report 2020 [See], during the 3 decades from 1969-2000, hundreds of millions of people were infected with malaria, tens of millions – mostly in sub-Saharan Africa – died, millions of households failed to emerge out of poverty as they struggled with catastrophic health expenditures, hundreds of thousands of pregnant women died during delivery due to malaria-related complications, and millions of children were born with low birthweight, potentially leading to early death or lifelong disability; millions of children who survived struggled with learning as they dealt with frequent absenteeism due to multiple episodes of malaria, chronic anaemia, seizures or cognitive impairment – consequences of infection and severe disease; huge blows were dealt to the growth of already weak post-independence national economies, and their attempts to build viable health systems were hampered by lost productivity and high demand for health care. According to the World Malaria Report 2020 [See], the first 2 decades of the 21st century represent a golden era in the history of malaria control – The world pulled together to fight malaria, delivering one of the biggest returns on investment in global health. The unprecedented scale-up of malaria interventions over this period has led to considerable reductions in disease incidence and mortality. These efforts coincided with other trends and changes that have had a positive impact on malaria, including a period of considerable economic growth and development, infrastructure and housing improvements, rapid urbanization, and general improvements in health systems and population health. By the end of 2019, about 1.5 billion malaria cases and nearly 7.6 million deaths had been averted since the beginning of the century. The indirect effect of these gains on the overall health of populations and economies is likely to be substantial. In recent years, however, progress has stalled, at a time when we are still dealing with very high levels of malaria burden, re-emphasizing the need to do a lot more to sustain the gains, accelerate progress and achieve the global ambition of a malaria free world.[World Malaria Report 2020]

According to World Malaria Report 2020, there were an estimated 229 million malaria cases in 2019 in 87 malaria endemic countries, declining from 238 million in 2000. The proportion of cases due to Plasmodium vivax reduced from about 7% in 2000 to 3% in 2019. Malaria case incidence (i.e. cases per 1000 population at risk) reduced from 80 in 2000 to 58 in 2015 and 57 in 2019 globally. Between 2000 and 2015, global malaria case incidence declined by 27%, and between 2015 and 2019 it declined by less than 2%, indicating a slowing of the rate of decline since 2015.

Twenty-nine countries accounted for 95% of malaria cases globally. Nigeria (27%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (12%), Uganda (5%), Mozambique (4%) and Niger (3%) accounted for about 51% of all cases globally. The WHO African Region, with an estimated 215 million cases in 2019, accounted for about 94% of cases. Although there were fewer malaria cases in 2000 (204 million) than in 2019 in the WHO African Region, malaria case incidence reduced from 363 to 225 cases per 1000 population at risk in this period, reflecting the complexity of interpreting changing disease transmission in a rapidly increasing population. The population living in the WHO African Region increased from about 665 million in 2000 to 1.1 billion in 2019.

The WHO South-East Asia Region accounted for about 3% of the burden of malaria cases globally. Malaria cases reduced by 73%, from 23 million in 2000 to about 6.3 million in 2019. Malaria case incidence in this region reduced by 78%, from about 18 cases per 1000 population at risk in 2000 to about four cases in 2019. India contributed to the largest absolute reductions in the WHO South-East Asia Region, from about 20 million cases in 2000 to about 5.6 million in 2019. Sri Lanka was certified malaria free in 2015, and Timor-Leste reported zero malaria cases in 2018 and 2019.

Globally, malaria deaths have reduced steadily over the period 2000–2019, from 736 000 in 2000 to 409 000 in 2019. The percentage of total malaria deaths among children aged under 5 years was 84% in 2000 and 67% in 2019. The global estimate of deaths in 2015, the GTS baseline, was about 453 000. Globally, the malaria mortality rate (i.e. deaths per 100 000 population at risk) reduced from about 25 in 2000 to 12 in 2015 and 10 in 2019, with the slowing of the rate of decline in the latter years. About 95% of malaria deaths globally were in 31 countries. Nigeria (23%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), the United Republic of Tanzania (5%), Mozambique (4%), Niger (4%) and Burkina Faso (4%) accounted for about 51% of all malaria deaths globally in 2019. Malaria deaths in the WHO African Region reduced by 44%, from 680 000 in 2000 to 386 000 in 2019, and the malaria mortality rate reduced by 67% over the same period, from 121 to 40 deaths per 100 000 population at risk. In the WHO South-East Asia Region, malaria deaths reduced by 74%, from about 35 000 in 2000 to 9 000 in 2019. India accounted for about 86% of all malaria deaths in the WHO South-East Asia Region. According to World Malaria Report 2020,  globally, an estimated 1.5 billion malaria cases and 7.6 million malaria deaths have been averted in the period 2000–2019. Most of the cases (82%) and deaths (94%) averted were in the WHO African Region, followed by the WHO South-East Asia Region (cases 10% and deaths 3%).

This web site provides comprehensive information on the history, parasites and vectors, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, complications and control measures of malaria. It also showcases the malaria control efforts at Mangaluru, South India.

History | Parasites | Vectors | Pathogenesis | Clinical features | Diagnosis | Treatment | Complications | Control | Mangaluru

News Desk
WHO recommends groundbreaking malaria vaccine for children at risk: Based on results from an ongoing pilot programme in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi that has reached more than 800 000 children since 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) is recommending widespread use of the RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) malaria vaccine among children in sub-Saharan Africa and in other regions with moderate to high P. falciparum malaria transmission. [See] Oct 6, 2021
Childhood malaria episodes could be reduced by 20% – from 2.49 to 2 cases per child – during malaria transmission season if the whole population were given a drug called ivermectin every three weeks, according to the first randomised trial of its kind including 2,700 people including 590 children from eight villages in Burkina Faso, published in The Lancet.[Lancet Full Text | EurekAlert | Independent Report | Earlier Study 2010 | WHO Report 2016]
Malarial anemia among pregnant women in the south-westerncoastal city of Mangaluru in India. Chandrashekar VN, Punnath K, Dayanand KK, Achur RN, Kakkilaya SB,Jayadev P, Kumari SN, Gowda DC. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked Feb 2019. doi:
Malaria Severity in Mangaluru City in the Southwestern Coastal Region of India. Kiran K. Dayanand, Punnath Kishore, Valleesha Chandrashekar, Rajeshwara N. Achur, Susanta K. Ghosh, Srinivas B. Kakkilaya, Suchetha N. Kumari, Satyanarayan Tiwari, Archith Boloor, Rajeshwari Devi, D. Channe Gowda. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Feb 2019;100(2):275-279. Abstract
World Malaria Report 2018 shows stalled progress, WHO and partners launch new country-led response to put malaria control efforts back on track [WMR 2018 | Key PointsWHO statement]
US FDA approves Tafenoquine for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria: US FDA has approved, under Priority Review, single-dose Tafenoquine for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of P. vivax malaria in patients aged 16 years and older who are receiving appropriate antimalarial therapy for acute P. vivax infection, first new treatment for P. vivax malaria in over 60 years. [US FDA Document | GSK-MMV Statement]
Gene Drive Wipes Out Lab Mosquitoes Nature Biotechnology | Am J Trop MedThe Scientist Report |
Malaria prevalence in Mangaluru city area in the southwestern coastal region of India. Kiran K. Dayanand, Kishore Punnath, Valleesha Chandrashekar, Rajeshwara N. Achur, Srinivas B. Kakkilaya, Susanta K. Ghosh, Suchetha Kumari, D. Channe Gowda. Malaria Journal. 2017;16:492 Published: 19 December 2017. Full Text | PDF |
World Malaria Report 2017: 216 million infections and 445000 deaths; 91% of these deaths occurred in Africa. [WMR 2017]
India unlikely to cut malaria by half in 2020, says WHO; but new malaria cases fall by a third, claims the minister for health!
Malaria Prevalence in the Urban Areas of Mangaluru in South India. Kakkilaya BS, Dayanand KK, Punnath K, Chandrashekar VN, Achur RN, Gowda CD. [See]
Malaria elimination in India and regional implications : Lancet Infect Dis. October 2016;16(10):e214–e224. At
New single-dose treatment shows promise in anti-malaria battle [Report]
Sri Lanka Becomes First Tropical Country to Eradicate Malaria [WHO Press Release | Sri Lankan Govt. | Can it be lesson? – CNN Report | Sri Lanka Succeeded where India Failed – India Today Report]
Malaria costs India Rs 11,640 crore yearly, dengue 6,000 crore: WHO [Times of India]
India sets out plan to eliminate malaria by 2030: BMJ | Govt.’s Rhetoric Must Meet Reality: The Hindu
Achieving the malaria MDG target: reversing the incidence of malaria 2000–2015: WHO, UNICEF Report, September 2015 [See]; India 3rd in no. of malaria deaths [TOI Report]
Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas. Jyotsna Shah, Olivia Mark, Helena Weltman, Nicolas Barcelo, Wai Lo, Danuta Wronska, Srinivas Kakkilaya, Aravinda Rao, Shalia T. Bhat, Ruchi Sinha, Sabah Omar, Peter O’bare, Manuel Moro, Robert H. Gilman, Nick Harris. PLOS One. September 2, 2015. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136726. Full Text at [Times of India Report | Bangalore Mirror Report]
WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria: Third edition – 2015 [Full | Policy Advisory Committee Meeting]
Challenge of P. vivax Malaria [WHO Technical Brief | Confronting P. vivax | Baird K on P. vivax mortality | Naing C et al: P. vivax as severe malaria | P. vivax and choroquine resistance]
How mosquitoes helped win the American Revolution By John R. McNeill | The mosquito has played a leading role in the rise and fall of empires throughout history By John R. McNeill
Guidelines for the Treatment of MalariaManagement of Severe Malaria: WHO, 2012 Severe Malaria Supplement 2014 National Drug Policy India 2013

 © ©BS Kakkilaya | Last Updated: Oct 9, 2021



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