Malaria has been haunting mankind since evolution. It has killed more people than all the wars, has greatly influenced our history and geography and has changed many of our genes. Globally, ~3.2 billion people are at risk of malaria, and 1.2 billion are at high risk. According to World Malaria Report 2018, in 2017, an estimated 219 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide, compared with 239 million cases in 2010 and 217 million cases in 2016. Although there were an estimated 20 million fewer malaria cases in 2017 than in 2010, data for the period 2015–2017 highlight that no significant progress in reducing global malaria cases was made in this timeframe. Most malaria cases in 2017 were in the WHO African Region (200 million or 92%), followed by the WHO South-East Asia Region with 5% of the cases and the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region with 2%. Fifteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa and India carried almost 80% of the global malaria burden. Five countries accounted for nearly half of all malaria cases worldwide: Nigeria (25%), Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), India (4%) and Uganda (4%). The incidence rate of malaria declined globally between 2010 and 2017, from 72 to 59 cases per 1000 population at risk. Although this represents an 18% reduction over the period, the number of cases per 1000 population at risk has stood at 59 for the past 3 years. The 10 highest burden countries in Africa reported increases in cases of malaria in 2017 compared with 2016. Of these, Nigeria, Madagascar and the Democratic Republic of the Congo had the highest estimated increases, all greater than half a million cases. In contrast, India reported 3 million fewer cases in the same period, a 24% decrease compared with 2016.
In 2017, there were an estimated 435 000 deaths from malaria globally, compared with 451 000 estimated deaths in 2016, and 607 000 in 2010. Children aged under 5 years are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria. In 2017, they accounted for 61% (266 000) of all malaria deaths worldwide. The WHO African Region accounted for 93% of all malaria deaths in 2017. Although the WHO African Region was home to the highest number of malaria deaths in 2017, it also accounted for 88% of the 172 000 fewer global malaria deaths reported in 2017 compared with 2010. Nearly 80% of global malaria deaths in 2017 were concentrated in 17 countries in the WHO African Region and India; 7 of these countries accounted for 53% of all global malaria deaths: Nigeria (19%), Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Burkina Faso (6%), United Republic of Tanzania (5%), Sierra Leone (4%), Niger (4%) and India (4%).
In 2017, an estimated US$ 3.1 billion was invested in malaria control and elimination efforts globally by governments of malaria endemic countries and international partners – an amount slighter higher than the figure reported for 2016. Nearly three quarters (US$ 2.2 billion) of investments in 2017 were spent in the WHO African Region, followed by the WHO regions of South-East Asia (US$ 300 million), the Americas (US$ 200 million), and the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Pacific (US$ 100 million each). In 2017, US$ 1.4 billion was invested in low-income countries, US$ 1.2 billion in lower-middle income countries and US$ 300 million in upper-middle-income countries. International funding represented the major source of funding in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, at 87% and 70%, respectively.
Global malaria funding needs to be increased, P. falciparum has become resistant to most medicines along the Cambodia–Thailand border and of the 78 countries reporting any monitoring data since 2010, 60 reported resistance to at least one insecticide in one malaria vector from one collection site, and 49 countries reported resistance to insecticides from two or more insecticide classes. Although we are said to be on track to meet the MDG target of reversing the incidence of malaria, the challenge of malaria continues…
This web site provides comprehensive information on the history, parasites and vectors, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, complications and control measures of malaria. It also showcases the malaria control efforts at Mangaluru, South India.
|Childhood malaria episodes could be reduced by 20% – from 2.49 to 2 cases per child – during malaria transmission season if the whole population were given a drug called ivermectin every three weeks, according to the first randomised trial of its kind including 2,700 people including 590 children from eight villages in Burkina Faso, published in The Lancet.[Lancet Full Text | EurekAlert | Independent Report | Earlier Study 2010 | WHO Report 2016]|
|Malarial anemia among pregnant women in the south-westerncoastal city of Mangaluru in India. Chandrashekar VN, Punnath K, Dayanand KK, Achur RN, Kakkilaya SB,Jayadev P, Kumari SN, Gowda DC. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked Feb 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imu.2019.02.003.|
|Malaria Severity in Mangaluru City in the Southwestern Coastal Region of India. Kiran K. Dayanand, Punnath Kishore, Valleesha Chandrashekar, Rajeshwara N. Achur, Susanta K. Ghosh, Srinivas B. Kakkilaya, Suchetha N. Kumari, Satyanarayan Tiwari, Archith Boloor, Rajeshwari Devi, D. Channe Gowda. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Feb 2019;100(2):275-279. Abstract|
|World Malaria Report 2018 shows stalled progress, WHO and partners launch new country-led response to put malaria control efforts back on track [WMR 2018 | Key Points | WHO statement]|
|US FDA approves Tafenoquine for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria: US FDA has approved, under Priority Review, single-dose Tafenoquine for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of P. vivax malaria in patients aged 16 years and older who are receiving appropriate antimalarial therapy for acute P. vivax infection, first new treatment for P. vivax malaria in over 60 years. [US FDA Document | GSK-MMV Statement]|
|Gene Drive Wipes Out Lab Mosquitoes Nature Biotechnology | Am J Trop Med | The Scientist Report |
|Malaria prevalence in Mangaluru city area in the southwestern coastal region of India. Kiran K. Dayanand, Kishore Punnath, Valleesha Chandrashekar, Rajeshwara N. Achur, Srinivas B. Kakkilaya, Susanta K. Ghosh, Suchetha Kumari, D. Channe Gowda. Malaria Journal. 2017;16:492 Published: 19 December 2017. Full Text | PDF | https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-2141-0|
|World Malaria Report 2017: 216 million infections and 445000 deaths; 91% of these deaths occurred in Africa. [WMR 2017]|
|India unlikely to cut malaria by half in 2020, says WHO; but new malaria cases fall by a third, claims the minister for health!
|Malaria Prevalence in the Urban Areas of Mangaluru in South India. Kakkilaya BS, Dayanand KK, Punnath K, Chandrashekar VN, Achur RN, Gowda CD. [See]|
|Malaria elimination in India and regional implications : Lancet Infect Dis. October 2016;16(10):e214–e224. At http://thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(16)30123-2/fulltext|
|New single-dose treatment shows promise in anti-malaria battle [Report]|
|Sri Lanka Becomes First Tropical Country to Eradicate Malaria [WHO Press Release | Sri Lankan Govt. | Can it be lesson? – CNN Report | Sri Lanka Succeeded where India Failed – India Today Report]|
|Malaria costs India Rs 11,640 crore yearly, dengue 6,000 crore: WHO [Times of India]|
|India sets out plan to eliminate malaria by 2030: BMJ | Govt.’s Rhetoric Must Meet Reality: The Hindu|
|Achieving the malaria MDG target: reversing the incidence of malaria 2000–2015: WHO, UNICEF Report, September 2015 [See]; India 3rd in no. of malaria deaths [TOI Report]|
|Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas. Jyotsna Shah, Olivia Mark, Helena Weltman, Nicolas Barcelo, Wai Lo, Danuta Wronska, Srinivas Kakkilaya, Aravinda Rao, Shalia T. Bhat, Ruchi Sinha, Sabah Omar, Peter O’bare, Manuel Moro, Robert H. Gilman, Nick Harris. PLOS One. September 2, 2015. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136726. Full Text at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136726 [Times of India Report | Bangalore Mirror Report]|
|WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria: Third edition – 2015 [Full | Policy Advisory Committee Meeting]|
|Challenge of P. vivax Malaria [WHO Technical Brief | Confronting P. vivax | Baird K on P. vivax mortality | Naing C et al: P. vivax as severe malaria | P. vivax and choroquine resistance]|
|How mosquitoes helped win the American Revolution By John R. McNeill | The mosquito has played a leading role in the rise and fall of empires throughout history By John R. McNeill|
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