Malaria has been haunting mankind since evolution. It has killed more people than all the wars, has greatly influenced our history and geography and has changed many of our genes. Globally, ~3.2 billion people are at risk of malaria, and 1.2 billion are at high risk. In 2016, an estimated 216 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide, compared with 237 million cases in 2010 and 211 million cases in 2015. Most malaria cases in 2016 were in the WHO African Region (90%), followed by the WHO South-East Asia Region (3%) and the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (2%). The incidence rate of malaria is estimated to have decreased by 18% globally, from 76 to 63 cases per 1000 population at risk, between 2010 and 2016. However, between 2014 and 2016, substantial increases in case incidence occurred in the WHO Region of the Americas, and marginally in the WHO South-East Asia, Western Pacific and African regions. In 2016, there were an estimated 445 000 deaths from malaria globally, compared to 446 000 estimated deaths in 2015. The WHO African Region accounted for 91% of all malaria deaths in 2016, followed by the WHO South- East Asia Region (6%). Fifteen countries accounted for 80% of global malaria deaths in 2016; all of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa, except for India. In 2016, an estimated US$ 2.7 billion was invested in malaria control and elimination efforts globally by governments of malaria endemic countries and international partners. The majority (74%) of investments in 2016 were spent in the WHO African Region, followed by the WHO regions of South-East Asia (7%), the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas (each 6%), and the Western Pacific (4%). [See WHO World Malaria Report 2017] Global malaria funding needs to be increased, P. falciparum has become resistant to most medicines along the Cambodia–Thailand border and of the 78 countries reporting any monitoring data since 2010, 60 reported resistance to at least one insecticide in one malaria vector from one collection site, and 49 countries reported resistance to insecticides from two or more insecticide classes. Although we are said to be on track to meet the MDG target of reversing the incidence of malaria, the challenge of malaria continues…
This web site provides comprehensive information on the history, parasites and vectors, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, complications and control measures of malaria. It also showcases the malaria control efforts at Mangaluru, South India.
|World Malaria Report 2017: 216 million infections and 445000 deaths; 91% of these deaths occurred in Africa. [WMR 2017]|
|India unlikely to cut malaria by half in 2020, says WHO; but new malaria cases fall by a third, claims the minister for health!
|Malaria Prevalence in the Urban Areas of Mangaluru in South India. Kakkilaya BS, Dayanand KK, Punnath K, Chandrashekar VN, Achur RN, Gowda CD. [See]|
|Malaria elimination in India and regional implications : Lancet Infect Dis. October 2016;16(10):e214–e224. At http://thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(16)30123-2/fulltext|
|New single-dose treatment shows promise in anti-malaria battle [Report]|
|Sri Lanka Becomes First Tropical Country to Eradicate Malaria [WHO Press Release | Sri Lankan Govt. | Can it be lesson? – CNN Report | Sri Lanka Succeeded where India Failed – India Today Report]|
|Malaria costs India Rs 11,640 crore yearly, dengue 6,000 crore: WHO [Times of India]|
|India sets out plan to eliminate malaria by 2030: BMJ | Govt.’s Rhetoric Must Meet Reality: The Hindu|
|Achieving the malaria MDG target: reversing the incidence of malaria 2000–2015: WHO, UNICEF Report, September 2015 [See]; India 3rd in no. of malaria deaths [TOI Report]|
|Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas. Jyotsna Shah, Olivia Mark, Helena Weltman, Nicolas Barcelo, Wai Lo, Danuta Wronska, Srinivas Kakkilaya, Aravinda Rao, Shalia T. Bhat, Ruchi Sinha, Sabah Omar, Peter O’bare, Manuel Moro, Robert H. Gilman, Nick Harris. PLOS One. September 2, 2015. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136726. Full Text at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136726 [Times of India Report | Bangalore Mirror Report]|
|WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria: Third edition – 2015 [Full | Policy Advisory Committee Meeting]|
|Challenge of P. vivax Malaria [WHO Technical Brief | Confronting P. vivax | Baird K on P. vivax mortality | Naing C et al: P. vivax as severe malaria | P. vivax and choroquine resistance]|
|How mosquitoes helped win the American Revolution By John R. McNeill | The mosquito has played a leading role in the rise and fall of empires throughout history By John R. McNeill|
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